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History of the Christian Church
by Henry C. Sheldon, Boston University
Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, New York; ©1895
With some revisions and type-setting by Sharon Mooney (2005)
All variations on the original Sheldon History volumes, including text revisions, greek art files associated with the text, and revised format ©2005 and Sharon Mooney

Early Church, Volume One


I. Nature of the Christian Church
II. Periods
Three divisions in the history of the Christian Church, with their subdivisions or periods.
III. The Roman Empire As Related to the Introduction of Christianity
Condition of immorality throughout the Roman Empire prior to the emergence of Christianity. Frivolous lifestyles of the Roman emperors and the inhumanity Roman entertainment. Sheldon touches on slavery, divorce and infanticide within the Roman Empire, and the reasons behind the persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor.
IV. The Jews of the Dispersion
The population and location of Jews at the period related to the Early Church. Henry Sheldon discusses the persecution and religious implications for the Jews to 30 A.D.

Chapter I : The Church Under the Apostles

I. Credibility of the Apostolic History
Comments on differences of personal beliefs between the Apostles and possible error in the Gospels.
II. Founding and Successive Eras of the Apostolic Church
Some of the events which occured between Christianity's beginnings in Judaism to an independent Christianity.
III. The Chief Apostles
Tracing what is known of the lives of the Apostles Peter, Paul, John, and one of the Apostles whose mysterious identity is in controversy, known only as James, "The Just".
IV. Charisms of the Apostolic Age
The recorded decline in miracles, speaking in tongues and prophecy following the Age of the Apostles.
V. Apostolic Church Government
Comments on the positions in Church government, apostles, prophets, evangelists, presbyters or bishops and deacons, and the role of women in the early church.

Chapter II : Struggle of Christianity With Heathenism

I. Spread of Christianity in the Heathen Empire
Statistics from historical records on the spread of Christianity in the early period of the Christian Church by geography and population. Quoting Tertullian, Christianity had became a force to reckon with.
II. The Attacks of Heathen Power
Christianity was yet illegal, the persecution and Martyrdom of Christians by Roman Emperors.
III. Attacks of Heathen Authors
The critics of Christianity before the Roman Empire legalized the religion. Including writers such as Tacitus, Suetonius, Pliny, Lucian and Celsus.
IV. Christian Apology
Early Christian Apologetics, as it arose to counter criticism of Christianity and Scripture, during the time of the early Church. Sheldon explores several apologists during the era, including Quadratus, Aristo, Miltiades, Apolinaris of Hierapolis, Theophilus, Justin Martyr, Origen, Athenagoras, Minicius Felix and Clement of Alexandria.

Chapter III: Heresies and Christian Theology

I. Classification of Heresies
Defining Heresies in the Early Church.
II. The Judaistic Heresies
Heresies within early Christianity which sprang from Judaism and the Mosaic Law.
III. Gnosticism
Insightful look back into early Christianity and the causes of Gnostic heresies. Covering the theological views of Gnostics and the men who were responsible for the various systems of Gnosticism.
IV. Manichæism
Exploring the early Christian heretical doctrines known as Manichaeism, which was a mixture of Christianity and Zoastrianism. Persecuted in the Diocletian era, and refuted by Church fathers, this teaching gained followers well into the sixth century.
V. Monarchianism
The Heresy in early Christianity of anti-trinitarian theology.
VI. The Catholic Theologians and Theology
The rise of Catholic theology and refutation of heretical doctrines, the prominent theologians which shaped Catholic and Christian thought in the early era of Church History.

Chapter IV: Church Constitution and Discipline

I. The Clerical Hierarchy
Exploring the history behind the evolution of Catholicism and its hierarchy of clerical positions.
II. Counsels, Canon and Constitution
Covering the Councils and the stringent regulations that were adapted for admission into the cleric during the early church, including rules regarding sexual conduct.
III. Discipline
Theological views on ex communication and confession of sin in the early church.
IV. Schisms Connected with Questions of Discipline. Montanism
Montanism and its influence over the church in the Early Period. The founder and followers of Montanism, and how it spread throughout the near east, taking on new names and ultimately peculiarities were adapted by the Catholic Church.

Chapter V: Christian Worship and Life

I. Sacred Times
Sacred festivals of the Early Church and their origin including the love feast, and the change from the Jewish Saturday Sabbath to the observance of the Lord's Day, which took place on Sunday.
II. Ordinances
Origins of Baptism, and Christening, the sprinkling of water to baptize converts to Christianity in the Early Church.
III. Main Features of Christian Life
Early Christian lifestyle, including popular views on sexual relations, marriage, virginity, celibacy. How Christians viewed slavery in the period of the early church, and views on fasting and treatment of strangers, poor and the widow.
IV. The Catacombs and their Testimony
Archaeological and historical insight into Christian thought during early Christianity when burials of the dead took place inside catacombs. Historian Sheldon discusses when catacombs were commonly used, and the last known recorded date of a burial taking place within catacombs. He discusses symbolic icons found to decorate the catacombs and their possible meaning.
V. Men of Marked Individuality
The lives of Tertullian and Origen, describing the approximate date of birth and an overview on their vastly different lives and personalities.

The shift from a pagan majority to a Christian majority in the second period of the Early Church.
Chapter I : The Victory of Christianity over Heathenism, and the alliance with the state.

I. The Administration of Constantine and his Sons
The Emperor Constantine, who overtook the throne and legalized Christianity in the Early history of the Christian Church. Details from historians on the execution of Constantine's wife and sons. Upon the death of Constantine, his sons Constantius, Constantine the Younger, and Constans overtook the Empire and the history of what became of it.
II. Julian the Apostate
Summary of the life of Julian, Emperor, half brother of Constantine and his short reign over the Roman Empire. Julian's abandonment of Christianity, and belief that it would pass away and heathenism return to its original greatness in the Empire.
III. The Policy of the Succeeding Emperors
The Emperors who followed Julian on the throne and their use of power toward Christianity. Includes the account of Hypatia of Alexandria and her brutal murder by Christians, and underlying political motives.
IV. Heathen and Christian Apology
Early Christian Apologetics, as it arose to counter criticism of Christianity and Scripture, during the time of the early Church. Exploring various books written by the early Christian fathers.
V. Nature and Results of the Alliance Between Church and State
As the Christian Church gained influence throughout the Roman Empire, it began to gain political influence. New-found wealth was readily available to the clergy, and many claimed conversion to Christianity for personal benefit. Death penalties were inflicted upon some deemed heretics. Severe punishment upon women encouraged and to supersede laws offering special protection afforded to women.

Chapter II : Christianity on and Beyond the Borders of the Empire
The growth of Christendom in the early Church on and beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire. Documents some of the martyrs, and the life of St. Patrick in Ireland.
Chapter III : Doctrinal Controversies

I. Causes and Features
Insight into the zealous dogmatism of the early church and its divisions on theological doctrines. Historians account some of the hostilities of the common person, swept away in controversies over doctrinal interpretation.
II. The Arian Controversy
The Arian Controversy which held the belief that Christ was to be esteemed neither truly divine nor truly human, neither God nor man; but a being intermediate between the two. Arianism was considered a heretical doctrine and was driven out by the Church.
III. The Christological Controversies
Further controversies of the early Christian Church on the person of Christ.
IV. The Origenistic Controversies
Athanasius, Epiphanius, Theophilus and other prominent figures in the early church; supporters and opposition to Origen's doctrines.
V. Controversies on Anthropology
The controversy which arose with the monk Pelagius from Britain. His doctrinal system were a denial of inherited corruption in the moral nature of man, a strong assertion of the freedom of the will, and a decided emphasis upon man's ability to work out his own salvation as opposed to his radical dependence upon divine grace.

Chapter IV : Church Constitution and Discipline

I. Election, Education, and Celibacy of the Clergy
The introduction of bishops voting, and celibacy in the clergy.
II. Developments in the Different Ranks of the Clergy
Early Christian deaconesses and the regulations set upon them, the institution of the papacy and power invested into Bishops.
III. Discipline
Penalties for crimes, including murder. The institution of Confession.
IV. Schisms Connected with Discipline
Schisms in the early Christian Church and some of the wanton violence and senseless deaths resulting from spiritual zealotry.

Chapter V : Worship and Life

I. Sacred Times, Rites and Services
Sacred festivals of the Early Church and their origins, including festivals to Mary, the mother of Jesus, the change from the Jewish Saturday Sabbath to the observance of the Lord's Day, which took place on Sunday.
II. Veneration of Saints, Relics, and Images
Relics worshipped by early Christians. Legends of healings by touching divine relics. Worship of martyrs and saints in early Christianity.
III. Miracles of Saints and Relics
Miracles in the early Church and deceptive inventions of the miraculous.
IV. General Tone of Christian Life
The Early Church and corrupted moral behavior of the times, comments by early church fathers.
V. Monasticism
Monasticism marked a move toward alienation of the world and its wealth. Extreme lifestyles and trends in early Christianity, including self-inflicted torture and solitude.
VI. Representative Men
Tracing lives of early prominent men of influence within Christianity. Athanasius, Basil and the two Gregories, Chrysostom, Augustine, Theodoret, Jerome and Ambrose.

Chapter VI : Products in the Artistic Spirit in the Early Church

I. Hymns and Liturgies
The introduction and spread of Hymns and Liturgies in the Early Christian Church.
II. Architecture
Architecture in Early Christianity, the majestic buildings erected as houses of worship; influences on Architectural design.
III. Painting
Artistic expression through painting and sculpture in early Christianity, and changes over time on how artists chose to portray Jesus.


I. Catholic Creeds
The Catholic Creeds in Early Christianity.
II. The Ignatian Problem
Fourteen arguments in favor of the Seven Epistles of the Middle Form as the genuine work of Ignatius.
III. The Placing of Hippolytus
Utilizing historical documents to attempt defining the rank and residence of Hippolytus.
IV. The Hatch-Harnack Theory of Early Christian Organization
Theory proposed in 1880 by Edwin Hatch to explain how the Administration evolved within early Christianity, and administration of charities.
V. Roman Bishops and Emperors
Table listing Bishops and Emperors who arose in the Roman Empire, by name and date of ascension.

Mediaeval Church, Volume Two



FIRST PERIOD (590-1073)

Chapter I
The Barbarian Tribes
Chronicle of events during the Barbarian Invasions of the Roman Empire and the downfall of the Roman Empire.

Chapter II
Extension of Christian Territory by Missionaries
During the Mediaeval period, the first Christian Missionaries who spread the Christian religion into heathen territories and an end of the Barbarian invasions.

Chapter III
Limitation of Christian Territory by Mohammedanism
Mohammed, and by what means he felt distinguished as a prophet, including commentary on the Koran, its influence and impact on civilization.

Chapter IV
Civil Patrons of Christianity
On the life of Charlemagne, Charles Martel and Pepin who restored a certain amount of order and dignity to the peoples of Europe following the Barbarian Invasions and the rise of feudalism.

Chapter V

Chapter VI
Church Constitution and Discipline
I. The Relations between Church and State
II. The Clergy in General
III. The Papacy
IV. Discipline

Chapter VII
Worship and Life

SECOND PERIOD (1073-1294)


Chapter I
Political Status of the Principle Countries of Europe

Chapter II
The Papal Theocracy and other Features of Church Constitution
I. Gregory VII and his more immediate successors
II. Alexander III. and Thomas Becket
III. Innocent III
IV. The Papacy from Innocent III to Boniface VIII
V. Various Features of Church Constitution

Chapter III
The Crusades
The Crusades were the first great enterprise which enlisted the common zeal of the Christian nations of Europe. All classes of society, from the king down to the peasant, sent forth the armed pilgrims who were to reclaim the holy places of the East. Hundreds of thousands, possibly several millions, of men were sacrificed in these expeditions.

Chapter IV
I. The Cistercians and their Great Representative
II. The Mendicant Orders

THIRD PERIOD (1294-1517)


Chapter I
Chief Political Developments

Chapter II
Popes and Councils

Chapter III
Representatives of Criticism and Reform

Chapter IV
The Waldenses
The Waldenses of the Medieval Church. The origin of this sect, and their founder Peter Waldo.

Chapter V
John Wycliffe and his followers
John Wycliffe, Biblical translator, his views as a reformer, his influence upon the Christian Church, and the tormentuous death suffered by Sir John Oldcastle/Cobham.

Chapter VI
John Huss and the Hussites
The life of John Huss, and his influence on Christian History.

Chapter VII
The Mystics

Chapter VIII

Chapter IX
The Mediæval Greek Church

Chapter X
Mediæval Hymns, Architecture, and Painting
I. Hymns
II. Architecture
III. Painting

I. The Seven Sacraments
II. Genuineness of the Famous Bull of Adrian IV
III. Sorcery and Witchcraft
IV. Popes and Emperors

Modern Church Part One, Volume Three


FIRST PERIOD (1517-1648)


Chapter I Humanism and its Relation to the Reformation
The Renaissance era and Humanism in relation to Christianity, and its key figures at the beginning of the Reformation.

Chapter II The Empire at the Dawn of the Reformation
The empire becomes a mixture of monarchy and confederacy, the peasant revolts, the crumbling system of feudalism.

Chapter III The Reformation in Germany and the Scandinavian Countries

I. Luther till the Leipzig Disputation
The life of Luther, his formative years and aptitude toward learning and teaching. Many of the influences which shaped the life of Luther into a father of the Reformation.

II. Luther from the Opening of the Leipzig Disputation to the Close of the Diet of Worms
Luther lays the foundation for the Reformation, leading to the Diet of Worms in which Luther is condemned as a heretic.

III Luther and the German Reformation from the Diet of Worms to the Close of the Diet of Augsburg
Further struggles between the Catholic Church and the Protestants. Living in seclusion, Luther accomplishes translation of the Bible.

IV The German Reformation from the Diet of Augsburg to the Death of Luther
The Reformation takes hold on the majority of German population. The sexual ruthlessness following in its wake.

V. The German Reformation from the Death of Luther to the Death of Melanchthon
The tensions increase between the Church and Protestants. The lifetime accomplishments of Melanchthon.

VI. The Reformation in the Scandanavian Countries
The effect of the Reformation on Norway, Denmark and Sweden. The leading figures of influence during the Reformation in Scandinavia. Fluxuations between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism by the rulers.

Chapter IV The Reformation in Switzerland

I. The Reformation in German Switzerland
Contemporary to Luther, Swiss Reformer Zwingli and his peculiar doctrines, including Bullinger and his influence on churches abroad.

II. The Reformation in French Switzerland
William Farel, the pioneer of Reformation in French Switzerland. Calvin's arrival, and the severe penalties befalling those who disobeyed Calvin's strict code of conduct. The trial of Michael Servetus.

III. Bonds of Union Between the Reformed Churches in Switzerland and Elsewhere
Efforts by Bucer to establish union between the Swiss and the Lutheran churches prove uneventful.

Chapter V Protestantism in France

I. The Reformation in France during the Reign of Francis I
Tremendous persecution by Catholics upon Protestants in France during the reign of Francis. Protestantism begins its spread through France.

II. The Reformation in France during the Reign of Henry II
Persecution and Martyrdom of Protestant Christian heretics, including France's own political officials, with hope to model the system inquisition in Spain.

III. Protestantism in France from the Death of Henry II to the Accession of Henry IV
Sixteen year old Francis II, those who usurped authority over the throne, charges of treason and executions. Massacres of Huguenots, and their iconoclastic uprising, leading to the civil wars in France. After three civil wars, a peace was concluded in 1570, only to be betrayed by the Queen, Catharine de Medici. The Vatican's reaction to the massacres.

IV. Protestantism in France from the Accession of Henry IV to the Fall of La Rochelle
Henry IV., a Roman Catholic grants religious freedom to the Huguenots, and murdered by a zealot. Henry's throne succeeded by Louis XIII.

Chapter VI Protestantism in Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands

I. Protestantism in Italy
Publications by Protestants begin circulating in Italy, disguised as works that even made their way into the Vatican and read by adherents of the Catholic religion. Protestantism begins gaining support. Inquisition begins against those suspected of heresy. Some of the Italian martyrs and the cruel means employed for execution.

II. Protestantism in Spain
Writings of Luther make their way into Spain. The New Testament is translated into Spanish. The inquisition begins to stamp out Protestantism. The barbaric means employed to silence the movement and its adherents.

III. Protestantism in the Netherlands
Historians estimate death toll of executions at hands of Roman Catholics. Iconoclastic rebellions, trials for heresy, and religious bigotry increases. Tensions between Christian denominations mount, and talk of war.

Chapter VII Protestantism in Great Britain and Ireland

I. The Reformation in England under Henry VIII
Henry VIII.'s reign, and controversial, unlawful marriage. The King's desire to shift loyalty from the Pope, to himself. Tyndale's work to translate the Bible into English and distribution thereof to the common person. England was set in such a state, that (quoting) those who were against the Pope were burned, and those who were for him were hanged.

II. The Reformation in England during the Reign of Edward VI
Reformation takes hold in England. The statute under which heretics had been burned since the rise of the Lollards is abolished. The Book of Common Prayer, a somewhat more Protestant influence, is introduced.

III. The Roman Catholic Restoration in the Reign of Mary
Queen Mary Tudor and Philip II., both of Spanish lineage, united in marriage, re-opening the alliance with Rome, and a fierce crusade against the Protestants is rekindled.

IV. Protestantism in England during the Reign of Elizabeth
Elizabeth's toleration of Protestant creeds draws the anger of the Pope and Roman Catholics in Europe. Assasination attempts on the Queen and those condemned as conspirators.

V. The Reformation of Scotland
Romish religion made a penal offence. John Knox on Queen Mary of Scots. The Queen becomes center of Roman Catholic plots, leading to imprisonment. Escaping to England, she spends her life as a prisoner.

VI. Protestantism in England and Scotland under James I. and Charles I.
Revised translation of the Bible issued during King James reign, and ready for publication in 1611. Furtherance of toleration toward Protestantism, and grievances of the Puritans.

VII. Protestantism in Ireland
Futile attempts to bring reform in Ireland, in either political and religious thought. Ireland, in its seclusion experienced little change from the mediaeval system.

Chapter VIII The Roman Catholic Church in the Time of the Reformation

I. The Popes and the Council
The Political Climate during the Reformation. The Council of Trent, measures to unify Roman Catholic forces, and a revival of Romanism sweeps through Europe.

II. The Inquisition
Events which occurred during the Inquisition, including the trial of Galileo.

III. The Jesuits
The rise and organization of the Jesuits. Devoted to Roman Catholicism, the Jesuit Society grew into the thousands and met with resistance from even the Roman Church, due to deceptive practices.

IV. Clerical Celibacy
Statistics of Priests who strayed from their vow of celibacy, and participated in concubinage.

Chapter IX The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia
Events, religious and political that lead up to the war, the devastating effects of the war on Europe, and the peace process.

SECOND PERIOD (1648-1720)

Chapter I. France and other Countries under Roman Catholic Rule

I. Louis XIV. and his Court
Louis XIV., King of France and his lavish lifestyle of excess and adultery. Rome, as well as all other outside powers exercised no controlling influence on the affairs of state.

II. Chief Factors in the Religious and Intellectual Life of the Gallican Church
Vincent de Paul's charitable work. Bossuet's influential sermons. Blaise Pascal's defense of Jansenists vs. Jesuits. Madame Guyon, 17th century prophetess, Fénelon's writings on God.

III. Persecution of the Protestants in France
The monarchy of Louis XIV. was intolerant, a uniform system of faith and worship imposed leading to violent persecution throughout France with thousands of Hugeunots recanting and exiled.

IV. Gleanings from Various Countries under Romish Rule
The intolerance of religion was in full force and in one spectacle eighteen Jews and one Morisco were burned alive. The purchase of souls from purgatory. An overview of the political and religious powers in the last half of the seventeenth century.

Chapter II Great Britain and Ireland

I. The Era of Cromwell and the Commonwealth
The political system of Cromwell allows freedom for many Protestants, renewed prosperity, with the exception to the Quakers which Cromwell made no special pains to lend protection.

II. The Era of the Restored Stuarts
Charles II. and James receive the crown, and the nation is lulled into a state of moral laxity, followed by further intolerance and persecution.

III. The Reigns of William III and Anne
Developments which bring a greater tolerance toward Protestant denominations, including John Locke's Letters concerning Toleration. The political union of England and Scotland.

Chapter III Protestantism in Germany and the neighboring Countries

I. Individual Exceptions to the Current Dogmatism
Controversial fever broke out among German Protestants before the death of Luther, leading to a lengthy reign of dogmatism. Some of the influential authors and their writings during this period.

II. Calixtus and the Syncretists
Calixtus, tolerant toward adherents of all denominations sought to establish some common ground between the divided denominations.

III. Spener and the Pietists
Spener's Pietism was one example of Christian reform, awakening earnest study of scripture. On the whole, Pietism was a blessing to Germany and to Christendom, though teaching abstinence from worldly merriments.

IV. Zinzendorf and the Moravians
Zinzendorf is another note-worthy figure in reformation history. Details of the Moravians' peculiarities; some being the lot, love-feasts, feet-washings, and the fraternal kiss at the communion.

V. Tenor of Protestant History in Sweden, The Netherlands, and Switzerland
The Dutch Republic and some theological developments during the period, such as the Labadists, and the Mennonites, granted full toleration in 1626, bearing similar practices with Baptists and Quakers.

Chapter IV The Eastern Church
Events in Church History which took shape in Russia. Cyril Lucar adopts creed substantially identical to reformed theology. Philip, exalted to martyrdom for reproval of Ivan the Terrible for his cruelties.

Modern Church Part Two, Volume Four


Chapter I Great Britain and Ireland in the Eighteenth Century

I. The Nonjurors
Nonjurors, consisted of men refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the new dynasty which was required of those holding clerical, academic, or other offices.

II. The Deistical Controversy
Lord Edward Herbert seeks to find essential tenets of true religion, followed by numerous writers who began questioning portions of the Bible and intepretation.

III. The Moral and Religious Condition of England on the Eve of the Great Revival
The relaxation of the law against witchcraft, and a flourishing slave-trade went on, with scarce opposition. Moral decline preceding the Great Revival.

IV. The Great Revival

1. Beginnings of Methodism
The background of John and Charles Wesley, and details on other key individuals who were involved with the Great Revival, with record of violence by mob attacks on the Methodists.

2. Whitefield and Calvinistic Methodism
The life and background of George Whitefield, co-founder of the Methodist denomination. Calvinistic Methodism's influence on England and Wales following Whitefield's death.

3. Charles Wesley and Methodist Hymnology
Charles Wesley was known for his unique gift with sacred poetry. On the lives of John and Charles Wesley, his hymns and mournful passing.

4. John Wesley and Organized Methodism
The rise of organized Methodism, a thing Wesley expresses having not planned. Life of John William Fletcher. Relationship with the Church of England, doctrines of Methodism, and hierarchal positions within the clergy. Wesley's support of the anti-slavery movement and denounce of liquor traffic.

5. Results of the Revival
Institution of Sunday Schools, the work of Bible and Tract distribution, the impact of the Great Revival upon the common people, --in a time of French revolutionary zeal, and bonfires of Bibles honoring Paine.

V. English Dissenters
Gradual change in law affects trends in popular doctrines. Laws against Roman Catholics are relaxed, and the resulting outbreak of intolerance. Laws affecting the variegated denominations, and notable figures shaping Protestant Hymnology.

VI. Principal Developments in Scotland
Events leading up to formation of the United Presbyterian Church. David Hume's skeptical works. A woman burned for witchcraft, 1727, Christmas denounced as superstition.

VII. Ireland from the Revolution to the Union (1691-1800)
The sorrow of Roman Catholics under hostile law, and the oppression of the English against the citizens in Ireland. Laws prohibiting marriage of Roman Catholics and Protestants, position of influence, education, property rights.

Chapter II America in the Colonial Era

I. The Colonies in their Political Relations
Columbus' discovery. The Pope, a Spaniard immediately issues a bull, declaring the Spanish as primary owners of new land. European conquests in the American continents. Slavery, Abolitionists, the colonies and political relation to Europe.

II. The Colonies in their Relations to the Natives
Religious ceremonies and spiritual beliefs of Native Americans, Inca and Maya. Slavery, oppression, massacre and abuses endured by the Natives by the new settlers in America.

III. Roman Catholic Establishments
The burning of Aztec Libraries. Santa Rosa, patron saint of Lima. Inquisition in the South American continent by Catholics. The story of the miraculous Virgin of Guadalupe.

IV. Roman Catholics in the English Colonies
Colonial law governing restrictions and tolerance toward Catholics, Unitarians and Jews. Details on Maryland having passed the act of tolerance in 1649.

V. Church of England Establishments, and the Founding of the Protestant Episcopal Church
Early American colonies' ties to the Church of England, including levied taxation. Laws and penalties for those failing to attend church, including the death penalty.

VI. Congregational Establishments
Various American colonies, their sentiments toward the Church of England. Persecution against variegated denominations. The Salem Witch trial, Jonathan Edwards and the Great Awakening.

VII. Non-Established Communions

1. Presbyterians
During the eighteenth century, the Presbyterians were in small numbers and yet to become an official. The transformation and events which leads to the establishment of the Presbyterian Church.

2. Baptists
Establishment of the first Baptist congregations through the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The growth of the Baptist denomination, the effect of Calvinism, and denominations breaking off from Baptist faith.

3. Quakers or Friends
Persecution and territorities populated by the Quakers in the United States, their code and beliefs.

4. Methodists
The founders of the American-Methodist Church and establishments of congregations, and growth in the the Revolutionary war era.

5. Lutherans
Beginning with the first Lutherans, Swedes who settled in Delaware, Carolinas and Georgia. Overview of events for the Lutheran church in the Revolutionary War era.

6. Universalists
Organized Universalism traced back to John Murray. Supporters of Restorationism, and pecualiarities of the Universalist creed.

VIII. Questions of Morals and Reform
Colonial Sabbath decision. Opposition to theatre, inhumane conditions of prisons. Alcohol consumption and prohibition. Quakers first in abolition of slavery, followed by Methodists and Baptist Association of Virginia.

Chapter III
France and Other Roman Catholic Countries of Continental Europe from the Death of Louis XIV to the Overthrow of Napoleon I (1715-1815)

I. The Political Movement in France
Hunger and disillusionment provoke the French into political discontent. Many die of want, the King sent to the scaffold. In midst of national upheaval, Napoleon Bonaparte becomes ideal for imperial rule over France.

II. The Skeptical Movement
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau and Guenée who shaped the era.

III. The French Church Prior to the Revolution
Controversies around the bull Unigenitus. Christian burial rites refused, to reject the bull was graver than 'the primal sin of Adam'. Jansenists and an overabundance of daily miracles, such as convulsions.

IV. The French Church in the Revolutionary Era
V. The French Church in the Napoleonic Era
VI. Chief Events in Austria, Italy, and Spain

Chapter IV
Germany and the Neighboring Protestant States (1720-1821)
I. General Glance at Germany
II. The Wolfian Era
III From Kant to Schleiermacher
IV. Chief Events in Sweden, the Netherlands, and Switzerland

Chapter V
The Russian Church (1725-1825)

Modern Church Part Three, Volume Five


Chapter I
Protestantism in Continental Europe Since Schleiermacher and the Union
I. Main Phases of the Political Movement in Germany
II. The Church in Germany viewed principally in its relation to the State
III. Prominent Developments in German Theology
IV. Outlines of Protestant History in Various Portions of the Continent

Chapter II
Romanism in Continental Europe Since The Fall of the First Napoleon
I. Mediæval Tendencies in the Sphere of Worship
II. Papal Absolutism and Infallibility
III Ecclesiastico-Political Matters

Chapter III
Great Britain and Ireland in the Nineteeth Century
I. General Survey of the Religious Field in England
II.Tractarianism, or Ritualism
III The Broad Church
IV. Some Facts Respecting English Dissenters
V. Church Polity and Religious Thought in Scotland
VI. Ireland
VII. Phases of Science and Philosophy in Britain

Chapter IV
America Since the Colonial Era.
I. The Expirament of a Free Church in the United States
II. Denominational Movements and Crises in the United States
1. Unitarians and Universalists
2. Congregationalists
3. Presbyterians and Reformed
4. Methodists
5. Baptists and Disciples
6. Episcopalians
7. Lutherans
8. Quakers
9. Roman Catholics
10. Mormons
11. Socialistic Communities
12. Denominational Statistics
III. Outlines of Canadian Church History
IV. Principle Developments in Spanish America and Brazil

Chapter V
The Eastern Church

Chapter VI
A Glance at Protestant Missions


I. The Bull Unigenitus on the Reading of the Scriptures
II. Popes and Emperors

Friends and Colleagues